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It works in the brain to change how your body feels and responds to pain.

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Buy dilaudid

Buy dilaudid ……this medication is used to help relieve moderate to severe pain. Hydromorphone belongs to a class of drugs known as opioid (narcotic) analgesics.

Hydromorphone is a pure opioid,1 a semi-synthetic hydrogenated ketone derivative of morphinethat has been available clinically since 1920. Structurally, hydromorphone derived from morphinein the modification of the hydroxyl group in the carbon 6 to a carbonyl and the absence of a double bond between the carbon 7 and 8. Due to these modifications, it presents a very high potency and comparable side effect profile to the parent compound.2 Even though hydromorphone does not present a 6-hydroxyl group, it is categorized under the family of phenanthrenes and it is considered a chemical under the schedule II (medical purposes with high addiction potential).3

The first reported approved product containing hydromorphone in the form of hydromorphone hydrochloride was developed by Fresenius Kabi USA and FDA approved in 1984.9

Hydromorphone is indicated for the management of moderate to severe acute pain and severe chronic pain. Due to its addictive potential and overdose risk, hydromorphone is only prescribed when other first-line treatments have failed.1

The WHO has proposed a three-step ladder for the management of pain in which it is suggested to start with a non-opioid medication followed by addition of weak opioids to the non-opioid treatment for moderate pain and finishing in the use of strong opioids such as hydromorphone along with the existing regimen for cases of severe pain.2

Off-label, hydromorphone can be administered for the suppression of refractory cough.1

Pharmacodynamics

In clinical trials, hydromorphone has been shown to be suitable for pain relief in patients that do not tolerate the side effects of morphine or that suffer from renal failure or asthma. It has been shown to be 5-7 times more potent than morphine with a shorter duration of analgesia.2

Some of the observed effects of the consumption of hydromorphone for acute pain are complete and longlasting pain relief when compared to other pain relief agents such as meperidinemorphinediamorphinebupivacaineindomethacin, and fentanyl. On the same trials, hydromorphone was shown to produce respiratory depression, lower cognitive function, miosis, mydriasis, constipation, hypotension, and vertigo but to present a reduced incidence of pruritus (which indicates a lower release of histamine) and nausea.7

The respiratory depression is known to be caused by the effect on the brain stem respiratory centers as well as to a reduction in the responsiveness of this brain stems to increase carbon dioxide tension.10

 

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